Best Travel Insurance for Parents Visiting USA (Comparison & Buying Guide)

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Written By Mani Karthik

I share everything I learned in life on this blog. From personal finance to spirituality and everything in between. 

I get it. Your parents are visiting the US, and you want them covered with the best health insurance plan. But with so many short-term health insurance plans available for visitors, which one should you buy?

In this article, I’ll compare the best insurance plans for parents visiting USA. Take a look and make your own decision.

Ever since I moved to the USA, I always wanted to bring my parents over. I wanted them to see new places, try the adventure rides, and enjoy the beauty of the USA, that they might have only seen in movies.

But buying the best health insurance for visiting parents was a big question. There were so many health insurance plans available and I was confused.

That is when I learned that having a good health insurance plan is a must for parents visiting the USA. 

Here are the best travel insurance plans reviewed in this article.
Best Travel Insurance for Parents

💡 Health Insurance, Visitor Insurance or Travel Insurance – The Difference

First off, health insurance for visitors in the USA is often called by three different names.

a) Travel Insurance b) Health Insurance and c) Visitor Insurance.

Technically, all three are the same.

Travel Insurance

Travel insurance is a plan you buy to cover specific financial risks and losses while traveling. Lesser losses include lost luggage and major losses include travel cancellations and international medical emergencies.

Health Insurance

Health insurance for the USA covers non-American tourists in case of a medical emergency. These may be due to health difficulties, accidents, or other challenges encountered in the US.

Visitor Insurance

Short Term visitor health insurance is perfect for travelers between employment. If you are a tourist to the USA and want to stay for a short time, you can get short-term health insurance from US insurers.

So, essentially all three are the same. Call it health insurance, travel insurance, or even short-term visitor insurance. The underlying plans are pretty much the same.

They cover visitors to USA, against medical emergencies.

Why is insurance for parents visiting USA important

Medical costs in the US can run into thousands of dollars in case of any unexpected sickness, illness, or injuries. Health care is the most expensive cost even for local USA residents.

Buying health insurance for parents that protects them from medical and travel crises assures that while their trip to America is not `00% risk-free, it is not financially disastrous.

Also read: Best medical insurance for greencard holders.

A travel/health insurance plan covers you against unfortunate accidents, mishaps, and health issues.

Here’s the caveat though.

You cannot assume that every health issue will be covered by all insurance plans – there are exclusions and caveats. This is where you need to do your research and find a plan that fits you.

Here is a sample medical bill for one month of hospitalization in USA. It’s pretty steep.

Best Travel Insurance for Parents Visiting USA (Comparison & Buying Guide)

If you’re visiting the USA as a parent, student, or even a temporary worker (ex: H1B visa), you’d need temporary health insurance, ideally.

Research Methodology
I and my team have worked tirelessly researching, analyzing, and comparing the best insurance plans for parents visiting USA through our NRI community. Recommendations are based on user reviews and recommendations.

✈️ Best Travel Insurance for Parents Visiting USA

Travel/Health insurance for parents visiting the USA is different from regular visitors’ insurance.

Regular travel/health insurance comes with many features and benefits that are not usually required for parents.

For example, baggage loss, protection from injury during adventure rock climbing, or adventure hiking. That is not very attractive to parents. For parents, the health and medical costs involved are more important. Isn’t it?

Here are the best travel/health insurance plans for parents visiting the USA.

  1. Atlas America ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
  2. Safe Travels USA Comprehensive ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
  3. Visitor Secure ⭐⭐⭐⭐
  4. Safe Travels USA ⭐⭐⭐⭐
  5. Atlas Premium America ⭐⭐⭐
  6. Safe Travels Cost Saver ⭐⭐⭐
  7. Visitors Care ⭐⭐⭐
  8. Patriot America Plus

When choosing a travel/health insurance plan, make sure to read the fine print for exclusions and inclusions.

If you’re looking for visitors insurance for parents over 70, I’d recommend choosing a comprehensive plan that covers pre-existing medical conditions.

Best Visitors Insurance USA

Here are the best visitors insurance to the USA.

1. Atlas America ⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
2. Visitor Secure ⭐⭐⭐⭐
3. Safe Travels USA Comprehensive ⭐⭐⭐⭐
4. Safe Travels USA ⭐⭐⭐
5. Patriot America Plus ⭐⭐⭐
6. Atlas Premium America ⭐⭐
7. Visitors Care ⭐⭐
8. Safe Travels Cost Saver ⭐⭐

💡 How did I come up with this list?

I’ve tried my best to create an unbiased opinion, talking to customers who bought visitors insurance, and shared their experiences through the NRI community.

I’ve brought my parents to the USA many times on a visit visa.

During this process, I’ve made several mistakes and learned a lot. Insurance is truly confusing and one has to read through the fine print to really understand what’s offered. I’ve studied the process and products in this industry probably more than an insurance agent.

Also, I run an online community for NRIs (Non-Resident Indians) called Many people there bring their parents on visit visas to the USA and share their experience dealing with health insurance providers. Usually, people complain about insurance plans.

For example, when they file a claim and get a cold reply from the provider. Just listening to those discussions itself can tell you which are the good and bad health insurance plans.

Before buying a plan, I recommend you to check prices on a comparison site like this and check the prices offline with a travel agent. If you can get a cheaper rate with an agent, that’d be great. But my experience is that you get better prices when you buy health insurance policies online.

Also read: Countries you can visit with a US visit visa.

Criteria for research
  • Complaints from users
    I researched customer complaints on all the health insurance plans listed here and got an idea about which are the most disliked plans/providers.
  • Insurance cost
    The cost was an important factor in comparing these health insurance plans.
  • Health Insurance agency’s reputation
    I looked at user reviews online, before deciding on the good and bad health insurance plans/providers.
  • Approval rates
    I looked at how easy or difficult it was to get approved for each plan mentioned here.
  • Network coverage
    I compared network coverage and access for different providers.
Best travel insurance for parents

Best Insurance for Visitors

Atlas America
100% Coverage, Comprehensive plan
Safe Travels USA
100% Coverage, Comprehensive plan
Patriot America Plus
100% Coverage, Comprehensive plan

Out of pocket medical expenses are very high in the USA. Treatment for even small events like common flu can cost up to a few hundred dollars for each doctor’s visit. Indian parents who visit the USA are subject to many risks during their stay. Like the change in weather conditions, physical injury, food poisoning, etc.

So, it becomes very important to protect them against such risks with a reliable travel medical insurance policy. Having said that, visitors insurance is not mandatory for parents visiting the USA, but it provides comfort and peace of mind to have a policy that will provide coverage in uncertain times.

💡 Is visitors insurance different from health insurance for Indian parents visiting?

Technically yes. But considering the products in the market, they are both pretty much similar.

Medical cost in US is alarmingly expensive compared to India. Don’t make the mistake of not buying visitors insurance for your parents when visiting USA. If possible, buy the plan online, before your trip.

Like I mentioned earlier, regular visitors insurance comes with more benefits and features than those catered for parents. A detailed review of each plan is given below. Please review each plan, its features, exclusions, and comparisons before making a decision.

How do visitors insurance work?

Visitors health insurance covers several dangers when traveling. It covers unexpected medical expenditures, lost luggage, airline cancellations, and other travel-related losses. Travel/ visitor insurance is usually bought online from the start day of your trip to the last day.

If an unforeseen event occurs during your time of visit in USA, you can contact the corresponding medical network in your area and get covered for the covered events.

Popular travel insurance plans for USA

🛫 Which are the popular insurance plans for US visitors?

Patriot America PlusSafe Travels USA
IMG GlobalTrawick International
Up to $1,000,000 policy maximumUp to $1,000,000 policy maximum
Pays 100% within PPO network after deductiblePays 100% within PPO network after deductible
$500 for loss of checked baggage$1,000 for loss of checked baggage
Acute onset of pre-existing conditions coverage up to policy maximumUp to $1,000 for acute onset of pre-existing conditions
Best travel insurance for USA - Short Visits

🛬 What about insurance for short visit to USA?

Here are the best visitor insurance plans for short visits.

Patriot AmericaAtlas America
Coverage: Up to 2 yearsCoverage: Up to 364 days
No coverage for acute onset of pre-existing conditionsCovers up to $2,000,000 for acute onset of pre-existing conditions (under age of 70)
Pays 100% within PPO network after deductiblePays 100% after the deductible is satisfied
$300 for acute, unexpected dental pain$250 for acute, unexpected dental pain
Best Travel Insurance Plans for USA - Long Visits

🛫 What about insurance for long visits?

If you’re visiting the USA for a long duration (say more than 2 months) then these are the best plans.

Patriot PlatinumPatriot America
Coverage: 36 MonthsCoverage: Up to 2 years
$10,000 for trip interruption$10,000 for trip interruption
Pays 100% within PPO networkPays 100% within PPO network
$300 for acute, unexpected dental pain$300 for acute, unexpected dental pain
Best Travel Insurance for Pre Existing Conditions

🛬 Best health insurance for pre-existing conditions

If your parents have pre-existing medical conditions and are traveling to the USA, here are the best health insurance plans.

Patriot America PlusAtlas America
Coverage: Up to 2 YearsCoverage: Up to 364 Days
Acute onset of pre-existing conditions: Max limit for person under age 70Acute onset of pre-existing conditions: $2,000,000 for person under age 69. $100,000 for age 70-79.
Co-Pay: 100% within PPO network after deductibleCo-Pay: 100% within PPO network after deductible
$300 for acute, unexpected dental pain$250 for acute, unexpected dental pain

Also read: How to choose the best travel insurance online

When to buy health insurance for pre-existing conditions

Health insurance for pre-existing medical conditions can be bought before or after arrival in the USA.

Which insurance provides coverage for pre-existing medical conditions

Only a few insurance policies (like the ones mentioned above) cover pre-existing ailments. Please check the policy specifics for full coverage information.

What pre-existing medical conditions are covered by health insurance for visiting parents?

When parents visiting USA from India have pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes, blood pressure, malfunctioning kidneys, thyroid, etc. their health tends to deteriorate due to the sudden climate change, travel fatigue, etc.

During such times their body’s internal sugar level, blood pressure, swelling, immunity system, etc. can flare up causing an acute onset of pre-existing medical conditions, read on to understand how the United States healthcare system coins the term Acute onset of pre-existing conditions.

What is acute onset of pre-existing conditions?
Any sudden and/or unexpected outbreak or recurrence of a Pre-Existing Condition (as listed by the insurance company) which occurs spontaneously and without advance warning is defined as acute on-set of a pre-existing condition. It usually occurs in short duration, is rapidly progressive, and requires immediate care.

Here’s an in-depth review of each health insurance plan that covers pre-existing conditions.

1. Atlas America

New immigrants to the USA, business travelers to the USA, students, short visits – whatever is the reason for your travel to the USA, Atlas America will suit your needs. It provides coverage for most potential disasters and natural calamities such as earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes, etc. which are very commonly occurring in major states like Florida, California, and Texas in the USA. This policy even offers emergency medical evacuation, coverage for loss of baggage, etc.

Atlas America Coverage Details & Benefits

Process to Getting Medical Treatment

  • Show your ID card to the medical attendant.
  • Pay the deductible or copay (if applicable).
  • The medical office may submit bills directly.
  • After the visit, you will need to submit a Claimant’s Statement and Authorization form.

Process to Filing a Medical Claim

  • Submit original, itemized bills, and any payment receipts, and claim form.
  • Claims must be filed within 60 days of the termination date of your plan.

Exclusions in Atlas America Plan

  • Coverage for pre-existing conditions is excluded from coverage.
  • Coverage for acute onset of a pre-existing condition is excluded when the pre-existing condition is a congenital or chronic condition.
  • Expenses related to cancer of any form are excluded.

Atlas America Cancellation Plan

  • Free to cancel before effective date.
  • $25 fee to cancel on or after effective date.
  • Prorated refund on unused days only.
  • No cancellations if a claim has been filed.

Atlas America Travel Insurance Plan Summary

Type of PlanComprehensive
Administered ByHCCMIS
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage364 Days
Coverage AreasUSA, International
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderFirst Health Network
Restricted StatesMaryland, Washington, New York
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

Atlas America Treatment Charges (For Sample Illustration Only)


2. Safe Travels USA Comprehensive

Safe Travels USA administered by Trawick International is a popular comprehensive plan that offers medical coverage for accidents and sickness to visitors in the USA (Non-US citizens).

It is popular with US visitors, especially among parents in the 70 – 89 age group since it provides the most coverage for acute onset of pre-existing conditions. Once you buy the plan, you’ll get a virtual ID card which is good to go.

Safe Travels USA Comprehensive Benefits

  • PPO Network (First health)
  • Deductible Options: In-network – $0, Out of Network – $0, $50, $100, $250, $500, $1,000, $2,500 or $5,000.
  • Urgent Care Co-Pay: $30 -If the $0 out of Network Deductible is chosen, there is no co-pay for Urgent Care.
  • Doctor visit: Pays up to $75 – One visit per person per plan period.
  • Emergency Room Illness with no direct Hospital Admission: $200 Co-pay
  • Trip Interruption: $5,000
  • Lost Baggage: $1,000
  • Accidental Death and Dismemberment: $25,000
  • Mental or Nervous Disorders: $2,500 per plan period
  • Physiotherapy/Physical Medicine/Chiropractic: $50 per visit per day; up to 10 visits per plan period
  • Dental Treatment: $250 per plan period

Safe Travels USA Comprehensive Plan Summary

Type of PlanComprehensive
Administered ByTrawick International
UnderwriterGBG Insurance Limited
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage2 Years
Coverage AreasUSA
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderFirst Health Network, Coventry
Restricted StatesMaryland, Washington, New York
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

3. Visitor Secure

Visitor Secure is an economical plan for people visiting the USA for a short time. It offers basic coverage, is low cost, and offers fewer benefits compared to the comprehensive plans. With no PPO network, you can visit any Doctor of your choice under this plan. (Which Doctor to visit with Travel Insurance)

It is underwritten by Lloyd’s and administered by Tokio Marine HCC Group.

There are some limits and restrictions you need to be mindful of. People from certain states and countries are not eligible for this plan. Check details here.

However, this remains as one of the most popular plans (in terms of the number of policies sold) among travelers to the USA.

Visitor Secure Features & Highlights

  • Coverage for pre-existing conditions is excluded from coverage.
  • Coverage for acute onset of a pre-existing condition is excluded when the pre-existing condition is a congenital or chronic condition.
  • Expenses related to cancer of any form are excluded.
  • Submit original, itemized bills, and any payment receipts, and claim form.
  • Claims must be filed within 60 days of the termination date of your plan. (Claim form & details).
  • Free to cancel before effective date.
  • $25 fee to cancel on or after effective date.
  • Prorated refund on unused days only.
  • No cancellations if a claim has been filed
  • Toll Free Contact Number : 1-800-605-2282

VisitorSecure Travel Insurance Plan Summary

Type of PlanLimited Coverage
Administered ByHCCMIS
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage2 Years
Coverage AreasUSA, International
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
Restricted StatesMaryland, Washington, New York
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

Here is an example of in-patient treatment charges as covered under this plan. (For illustration purposes only, actual charges may vary, please check directly with the company).


4. Safe Travels USA

Safe Travels USA is an excellent and very popular visitors insurance plan for visitors to the USA. It can be purchased for 5 days to 1 year and renewed for a total of 2 years.

Safe Travels USA Benefits & Features

  • Plan pays 80% of the first $5,000, then 100% upto the plan maximum
  • Covers doctor visits, X-rays, prescriptions, hospital, surgery and ambulance
  • Coverage for acute on-set of a pre-exisiting medical condition
  • Emergency medical treatment of pregnancy up to $1,000
  • Mental or nervous disorders up to $2,500
  • Physiotherapy/Chiropractic $50 per visit per day up to 10 visits
  • Dental – For injury or emergency alleviation of pain $250

Safe Travels USA Travel Insurance Plan Summary

Type of PlanLimited Coverage
Administered ByTrawick International
UnderwriterGBG Insurance Limited
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage1 Year
Coverage AreasUSA
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderFirst Health Network, Coventry
Restricted StatesNone
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

5. Atlas Premium America

Atlas Premium America is comprehensive, high-end visitor insurance for the USA. It participates in the United Healthcare or First Health PPO Network that provides cashless treatment in the US.

After you pay the chosen deductible, when you visit providers under the PPO network, Atlas Premium America will pay 100% of the plan maximum for all the covered medical expenses.

6. Safe Travels Cost Saver

An economical plan for non-US citizens who are visiting the USA and US citizens whose home country is outside of the US who needs up to 90 days of coverage. New injuries, accidents, and new medical conditions that occur after the effective date of the plan are covered under this plan.

However, expenses related to pre-existing conditions, preventive check-ups, or maternity is generally not covered in this plan.

Safe Travels USA Cost Saver Plan Summary

Type of PlanLimited Coverage
Administered ByTrawick International
UnderwriterGBG Insurance Limited
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage2 Years
Coverage AreasUSA
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderFirst Health Network, Coventry
Restricted StatesNone
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

Also read: In-depth review of Patriot America Plus Travel Insurance

7. Visitors Care

Visitors Care administered by IMG Global and underwritten by Sirius International is decent health insurance for visitors to the USA. It’s basic coverage, low-cost, fewer benefits plan that offers coverage from 5 days to 12 months.

With the First Health PPO network, you can visit a Doctor under this network. There are some limits to it, as people from certain states (Maryland) and countries are not eligible for this plan.

It is optional to cover pre-existing conditions under this plan (see details).

Visitors Care Travel Insurance Plan Summary

Type of PlanLimited Coverage
Administered ByIMG
UnderwriterSirius International
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage1 Year
Coverage AreasUSA, International
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forUS Residents, Non US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderFirst Health Network
Restricted StatesMaryland
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsOptional

8. Patriot America Plus

Patriot America Plus plan from International Medical Group is a comprehensive travel medical insurance plan for non-U.S. citizens who are traveling abroad (to the USA included). The plan is intended to offer a complete package of international benefits available 24 hours a day to every individual, family, or group of five or more travelers.

It is underwritten by Sirius International and administered by IMG Global.

Patriot America Plus Features & Benefits

  • Maximum limits: $50,000 to $1,000,000
  • Deductible: $0 to $2,500
  • Extensions: Up to 24 continuous months
  • Emergency medical evacuation: $1 million
  • Coinsurance:
    • In-network: IMG pays 100%
    • Out-of-network: IMG pays 80% up to $5,000, then 100%
  • Acute onset of pre-existing conditions: Under 70 years of age, up to the maximum limit. $25,000 maximum limit for medical evacuation
  • Remote transportation: No coverage
  • Supplemental accident: No coverage
  • Offers comprehensive coverage. (See difference between comprehensive & limited coverage)
  • Affordable premium.
  • Acute onset of pre-existing conditions coverage available up to selected plan maximum.
  • Good PPO network.
  • Deductible should be satisfied only once per plan period.
  • Renew, cancel or refund online. (How to renew travel insurance)
  • For travelers over 80 years, there’s a maximum limit of $10,000.
  • Renewable is possible only after 30 days of purchase.
  • $50 Applicable for cancellation.

Patriot America Plus Travel Insurance Plan Summary

Type of PlanComprehensive
Administered ByIMG
UnderwriterSirius International
Min. Coverage5 Days
Max. Coverage2 Years
Coverage AreasUSA, International
For Visa TypesB1/B2
Available forNon US Residents, US Visitors
ProviderUnited Healthcare
Restricted StatesNone
Acute On-Set of Pre-Existing ConditionsCovered

💡 Best Insurance for Parents Visiting USA from India

The best visitors insurance for parents visiting the USA from India is Atlas America, Visitor Secure, Safe Travels, and Patriot America Plus. Here are in-depth reviews.

Apart from US companies (the ones mentioned above), there are a few Indian visitors insurance companies as well, that provide visitors insurance for visitors to the USA from India.

I personally wouldn’t recommend these health insurance companies for parents visiting USA from India, because most of the time, they are only good on paper but won’t be of help in actual situations.

Tata AIG – Travel Guard Visitors Insurance

Travel Guard offers a plethora of plans starting from a basic plan to the most comprehensive coverage called Platinum. PS: Any travel insurance plan can cost you between 4-8% of the total trip cost. My research is done under the assumption that the trip cost is between $4000-$4500.

More details here.

Geico Travel Insurance

GEICO is not an Indian company. GEICO’s visitors insurance plans are divided into two categories: ExactCare and AirCare

Features of ExactCare traveler insurance:

– Trip cancellation or interruption
– Emergency medical/dental coverage
– Baggage loss/delay
– Travel delay
– Missed connections
– Emergency medical transportation

Features of AirCare  includes

– Flight cancellation for domestic or international flights
– Missed connections for domestic flights
– Flight or tarmac delays
– Lost or delayed luggage

Official website and details here.


Advantages of choosing HDFC ERGO travel insurance:

– You can avail your insurance online and if you are an HDFC account holder, then the process even simpler with net banking. There is no need for medical checkups or complicated documentation.
– You can avail of travel insurance for a trip as short as 1-4 days.

In-depth review hereOfficial website and details here.

ICICI Lombard Visitors Insurance

The key benefits of this plan are that no medical test is required up to 85 years of age and cashless hospitalization facility is available worldwide. You may avail of your insurance for 180 days but you can surely extend it for another 180 days. ICICI Lombard’s visitor insurance can give you coverage for a total loss of checked-in baggage including handbags.

In-depth review hereOfficial website and details here.

Most of the airline industry also provides their own independent visitor insurance coverage Most recently when my parents were traveling within India, Jet Airways offered them their visitor insurance coverage called Jet Protect for insuring their belongings and the domestic flight journey. Tata AIG’s Travel Guard is the plan through which Qatar and Emirates ensure their traveler’s flight journey.

It is easy to list a number of companies that offer visitors insurance, but the choice is always yours. You have to decide what makes you buy a particular plan and what are the reasons to justify it. For this, you need to know what are the various factors that determine the visitor insurance rates.

– Age of the traveler really matters
– Number of travelers
– Length of travel
– Type of coverage

I have written more in-depth articles on bringing your parents to the USA. Here are a few that I strongly recommend reading.

Share these with your parents visiting USA from India.

💡 Travel Tips for Parents Visiting USA

Parents love visiting their kids, be it USA or UK. But in the excitement, we tend to forget about their safety and health.

A 24-hour plane journey can be painful. The common flu, a sprained ankle, or even an upset stomach can spoil all the fun.

Accidents can happen anywhere, anytime. All we can do is take necessary precautions to overcome the stress and limit the financial burden. That’s when medical insurance comes into the picture.

Besides covering the medical expenses, it is a wise idea to make sure that the visitor insurance policy you purchase, includes coverage for the travel time. Most of these good comprehensive policies/plans provide coverage for door-to-door travel as long as the travel time is included in the length of the coverage. They can generally cover for:

  1. Taxi rides to international airports, 
  2. Traveling on the concourses of airports, 
  3. Coverage for injuries on elevators, 
  4. Injuries on escalators, and baggage conveyor belts, 
  5. Accidental hurt if any in bathrooms, restaurants, food courts, eateries, kiosk areas, 
  6. Bus rides that may be boarded to reach the flight gate in large airports,
  7. And similarly, all these coverages till they reach back home safely to their registered address

For eg: If your parents are starting their visit from a small town of India, to the big city where they will board the international flight, to another major city in India as a connection and then flying out, please make sure all of these travel time back and forth is included in the policy. 

💡 Here are some tips for parents visiting the USA, for a pleasant visit.

  • Avoid risky & adventure-based events.
  • Avoid exposure to extreme weather conditions.
  • Eat healthy, balanced food.
  • Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.
  • Stay connected, get a mobile phone.
  • Carry emergency cash with you always.
  • Take frequent breaks during travel.
  • Carry over-the-counter medications if needed.
  • Carry documents proving medical history.
  • Keep emergency contact with you always.
  • Memorize your local address.
  • Carry ID proof and documentation with you always.

Here are more tips for parents traveling to the USA.

Before you read ahead, please also check this article on different types of travel insurance is available. (Also read: Best travel insurance for senior citizens)

Best Travel Insurance for USA

🛫 Is visitors insurance compulsory for USA?

No. According to US laws, visitors insurance is not mandatory for traveling to the USA, if you are a tourist.

Visitor insurance is intended to cover the following expenses while you are in a foreign land…

  • Trip cancellations
  • Medical expenses
  • Baggage loss
  • Flight cancellations

Having said that, not every visitor insurance plan covers everything. Please check the exclusions and benefits of each plan before purchasing.

I recommend buying visitor insurance when traveling to the USA because…

  • It covers medical expenses.
  • It covers contingencies like flight cancellations & lost baggage.
  • It gives you peace of mind.

Visitors insurance rightly falls into two categories: Comprehensive and Limited – Read this article to understand each type of visitors insurance.

✨ Does travel insurance for parents cover trip cancellation?

Let’s see what trip cancellation plans cover.

In case you need to cancel your trip for valid reasons prior to your departure,  this plan will help you with the reimbursement of your pre-paid non-refundable portion of your trip cost. Additionally, it covers many more aspects like

Trip interruptions – This is a situation wherein the traveler is constrained to return home from the trip early due to covered reasons like home is on fire or flood, or relatives passed away, etc.

Emergency medical expenses & medical evacuation – This is the coverage given to the traveler if he/she falls sick while on travel and this is helpful in a way to reduce your expenses as your domestic medical insurance might end up making you pay a higher deductible or coinsurance. Why risk it?

Repatriation of remains – If you were to pass away while on your trip, these benefits will pay for sending the remains back to the homeland.  Let such incidents never happen to any of us.

Baggage – There are policies that may cover things such as loss of checked luggage, baggage delay up to a maximum amount, etc. Some may just pay you the additional expenses incurred due to the fact that you lost your luggage and ask the traveler to collect the payment from the travel providers which will be the airline because they are responsible for the loss.

Best Travel Insurance for USA

✨ Does visitor insurance cover medical insurance?

Visitor insurance and medical insurance are two terms that are interchangeably used sometimes. Technically, they are different but in this context, they are very similar.

For US visitors, visitor insurance is ideally short-term medical insurance. It offers protection against illness or injuries that occur during your visit to the USA. Some of the eligible medical expenses in travel insurance are doctor’s visits, hospital charges, surgery, lab works, prescription drugs, etc. Please check plan details for exclusions.

An important thing to note about travel insurance is that some of the plans do not cover existing illnesses or “pre-existing conditions”.

Recommended Plans

✨ Who should get visitor health insurance

Visitor insurance or short-term medical insurance is available for all kinds of visitors to the US such as..

– International Students ( F1/F2 Visa holders)

– Exchange Program Students ( J1 / J2 Visa holders): These are students who are traveling to the USA on an exchange program from their parent country for a few business days.

Visitors to US or tourists: Now this type can be your parents, siblings, cousins, or friends who are visiting the USA as part of a leisure trip.

– Long-term work visa holders: These are professionals who migrate to the USA on H1 / H4 ( spouses or dependents of H1 visa holders).

– Short-term work visa holders: Professionals who migrate to the US for a shorter duration in L1/L2 ( spouse or dependents of L1 visa holders).

🧳 How to claim medical insurance while in USA

Claiming your medical insurance is a fairly straightforward process in the USA. Make sure you call the provider immediately or within 24 hours of an emergency. Follow the instructions they provide. Details here -How to get travel insurance claim approved.

🛩️ How much does travel insurance to USA cost

Travel insurance to the USA will cost anywhere from $100 upwards depending on your duration of stay and risks covered. To get an accurate estimate, try the online plan cost estimator here.

🛫 What if your claim gets denied based on a pre-existing condition

My friend’s mother faced this situation. She landed in the US with a medical condition that was actually cured earlier and was never supposed to relapse. The climatic conditions triggered her illness and unfortunately, it was not accounted as a new illness.

The solution to this situation was to make an appeal on the matter by providing evidence to contest the denial of the claim. The evidence can consist of a written statement from your family physician stating that the medical condition was cured and did not exist before the travel date or start date of the current insurance.

There are high chances that the claim will be paid. Ironically it totally depends on the credibility of the evidence.

Also read: Best medical insurance for pre-existing conditions

Getting deeper into this topic.

Where can you buy visitors insurance?

The best place to buy visitors insurance is online. There are websites like that offer customer support and assistance to buy travel insurance.

Related: Where to buy travel insurance online?

Which is the best health insurance for visitors to USA?

The best health insurance for visitors to USA is Atlas America, administered by WorldTrips and from Lloyd’s insurance company.

How much does visitor health insurance cost?

Visitors insurance can cost anywhere from $200 to $2000 depending on your duration of stay in USA, age, activities involved, and whether or not you have any pre-existing medical conditions.

Best visitor insurance covering pre-existing conditions

Regular travel/visitor insurance does not cover pre-existing conditions. Here are the health insurance policies that cover pre-existing conditions. Please make sure that you read the exclusions and benefits thoroughly before purchasing.

Which insurance is best for parents?

In my experience, comprehensive travel/health insurance plans are best for parents as they have better cover and consider pre-existing conditions.

Can US visitors get health insurance?

Yes. US Visitors can get health insurance but they have to buy it before they travel. Not after reaching USA. The best health insurance for US visitors are Atlas America and Safe Travels USA Comprehensive.

Is Atlas America legit? Is Atlas America good for parents visiting the USA?

Yes. Atlas America is one of the most popular visitor insurance plans for parents.

Do I need to purchase visitor insurance from India or from the USA?

I would recommend buying visitor insurance from the USA or online, and not India as most of the plans from India are just good on paper.

Where to buy visitors insurance from

I recommend buying visitor insurance online from websites like Insubuy.

How is the visitors insurance claim process?

One of the things many of us forget while buying travel/visitor insurance is the claim process. In a recent study, we did it was observed that most people who buy visitor insurance do not use the claim process.

For the same reason, there are many stigmas and misconceptions associated with the visitor insurance claim process.

Here are some important things you need to know about the travel/visitor insurance claim process.

  1. You might need a Doctor’s certificate to claim trip cancellations.
    And it’s best if you just don’t go about getting it randomly. But follow the standard template issued by the insurance company.
  2. Keep documentation of everything. Tickets, doctor visits etc. They will be useful during claim process.
  3. If something unfortunate happens, contact your insurance company immediately, rather than waiting.
  4. Provide proof of loss in case of any physical damage (ex: baggage loss).

Also read: Visa interview questions for parents visiting USA

Can I deduct my parent’s travel medical insurance I paid for?

Generally, you can only deduct medical expenses that you have paid.

What travel insurance should I buy for parents traveling to the US?

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the best travel insurance for parents traveling to the US will vary depending on their individual needs and circumstances. However, some factors that parents should consider when choosing travel insurance include coverage for medical emergencies, trip cancellation and interruption, lost or stolen luggage, and 24/7 assistance.

Should parents get travel insurance before US interviews?

It is not mandatory buy travel insurance before US visa interview but it is a “good to have”.

Does travel insurance cover a medical emergency of parents?

Some travel insurance policies will cover the cost of a medical emergency for your parents, but it is important to check the terms and conditions of your policy to be sure.

Which medical insurance is the best to my parents traveling to USA?

There is no definitive answer to this question as there are many different types of medical insurance and what may be the best for one person may not be the best for another person. Some factors that you may want to consider when choosing a medical insurance plan for your parents include their age, health, and travel itinerary. You may also want to compare different plans to see which one offers the most comprehensive coverage and the best value.

What deductible should we choose for parents travel insurance?

There is no definitive answer to this question as it depends on a number of factors, such as the parents’ age, health, and travel destination. Some parents may feel comfortable with a higher deductible in order to save on premiums, while others may prefer a lower deductible in case they need to make a claim.

What is the cost of traveler’s insurance for parents visiting US?

Cost of travel insurance depends on a number of factors, including the age and health of the parents, the length of their stay, and the activities they plan to undertake while in the United States. However, a typical travel insurance policy for parents visiting the US for a short period of time might cost around $100-$200.

What I learned from buying visitors insurance for parents visiting US!
  • Travel insurance is not a must, but highly recommend and useful.
  • It’s better if you buy/activate the plan before boarding flight.
  • It’s better to get an insurance plan from US company.
  • Cheapest plan is not always the best. Do your research well.
  • Buying online has its benefits. Use the comparison engines.
  • Comprehensive coverage plans are better than limited coverage ones.

Related: Do you need travel insurance when traveling to USA

Disclosure: Some of the products mentioned here are linked to their product pages/websites with an affiliate link. If you make a purchase from the websites, this blog might earn a commission from the sale, without affecting the cost of the product or any other additional charges.

If you have any questions, please ask in the comments and I’ll be happy to answer.

82 thoughts on “Best Travel Insurance for Parents Visiting USA (Comparison & Buying Guide)”

  1. What an amazing resource! Thanks for putting this together MK.

    I was looking to buy travel insurance for my parents visiting US, and found it very useful. You should add more info about claims if possible.

    Thank you.

  2. Hi Bala, I’d recommend Atlas America, Patriot America Plus or Safe Travels. Please compare them. It’s usually unfair to be recommending anything without context but I’d let you be the judge. All the best! 🙂

  3. I am looking to take health insurance for my parents in India , Do you have any suggestions as there ages are 55 and 60 years old ?

  4. Hi Mani,
    Thank you so much for your time and effort in compiling this information for us all! It is very much appreciated! This is such a complex topic, and there is no answer that fits everyone. Yet you have tried to provide information that can be used by so many people. All best wishes to you!

  5. Are you referring to a group who are part of a forum or everyone who has moved back 🙂
    I have immense respect for people who have moved back and running cool startups and contributing to the Indian ecosystem!

    What I meant was, in my first note, the travel insurance purchased from India, how are they compared to the ones purchased in US?

  6. Hi Mani
    You are doing absolutely amazing work!
    Thankyou so much!

    I see great questions by everynoe as well about insurance plans in India
    I understand that its better to get coverage here

    However, do you have a post about folks who may have purchased insurance from India( ICICI, New India etc) in the last 2-3 years – just want to get perspective – thank you so much

    Best Regards

  7. My mother-in-law is visiting the US from Pakistan and is 84. She does not have any pre-existing conditions and will be visiting for 4 months. Last year she visited and we used Safe Travels USA Comprehensive, but I don’t see that on your list anymore. Which plan would you recommend?

  8. Hi Karthik,

    Useful article. I’m curious if you know who took one of the above plans (ex: Atlas America) and actually visited a physician here. For new and/or pre-existing conditions. Bcz, I see that everyone is taking the plans but not sure how effective these plans are.

  9. hi Mani,

    Firstly, thanks a lot for this information.
    I have some confusion between travel insurance and medical insurance. Is one a subset of other?

    My parents are planning at visit in May. My mother has no pre-existing conditions, but my father is a diabetic. But both are relatively healthy (they are aged 58 and 60 respectively). I am not sure which one provides a good coverage. Do you mind providing your suggestion here.


  10. Dear Reader, cover america-gold have the undesired process of pre-Certification for inpatient treatment also (the main purpose of insurance is expense during a situation of being an inpatient).

    Coveramerica-gold is advertised highly in many review pages and the pre-certification for inpatient is not mentioned as disadvantage (even in this page, not even a single disadvantage for Coveramerica-gold). Beware !!

    In an emergency where you need an inpatient treatment would you wish to think about the recovery or the following list of activity as mentioned in the Coveramerica-gold insurance brochure ( ).

    Check 3rd point, will you ask a Doctor about recovery or will you ask a Doctor to FULLY cooperate with the insurance company at the emergency moment. According to insurance what does FULLY means, this one word is enough to reject your claim.

    To comply with the pre-certification requirements, you must do the following:
    1. Contact Seven Corners Assist at the telephone number on your ID card as soon as possible before the expense is incurred;
    2. Comply with Seven Corners Assist’s instructions and submit any information or documents they require;
    3. Notify all physicians, hospitals and other providers that this insurance contains pre-certification requirements and ask them to fully cooperate with Seven Corners Assist.

  11. Hi Mani,
    What about coverage for new immigrants. My parents are traveling soon on an immigrant visa. Their green card is approved. What plans/options would you recommend for an extended coverage (~3-5 months) on their upcoming visit?

  12. I saw the details. It provides information but could not find what I am looking for. Please suggest a plan for senior citizen age group 75-79 years with Pre existing condition covered. The coverage for pre existing condition should be sufficient for US condition.

    The plan premium should be economical.

  13. These are Visitors Insurance NOT Travel Insurance. Although many use this term interchangebly I think there is a clear distinction. You should consider renaming this title – “Which Is The Best Travel Insurance For Parents Visiting USA?”

  14. Hi Prashant,

    My parents are planning to visit USA on june 2019.My father had also put stent on his chest,so i just wanted to know which insurance plan you had taken for them and is there any issue on plane during travelling.


  15. Hi karthik,

    My mother is visiting Calgary Canada for 6 months and we have plan to visit USA for a week or two.

    What would you suggest which insurance company based out of USA or Canada ?? Or any insurance company from india??
    I’m really confused, my mother is pretty healthy age 55 and don’t have any current issues or medication also did not had any major surgeries or illnesses

    Appreciate your response and help


  16. Sandeep, in this case, I’d be very careful about what I choose. If I were you, I’d call up the customer care number to get a confirmation from the provider on whether or not his conditions will be covered. “Pre-existing conditions” is a grey area and I wouldn’t make any assumptions.

  17. Hi Mani,

    My name is Sandeep. My parents are visiting this week. Dad is 70 and mom is 59. Dad had a surgery in his leg 4 months back and he is now recovering. Currently, he is under physiotherapy but can walk slowly. Dad also had diabetes. Mom does not have any preexisting conditions. They are here in US for 6 months. Which insurance would you suggest?

  18. Prashant, I suggest you dire4ctly call up the provider to double check it. Reading any amount of documents online will not give you the accurate information. This is my experience.

  19. Hi Mani,

    I have a question my Mother-in-law had breast cancer in 2013 She is fine now but are you aware of any insurance which will cover it along with it my Father-in-law had put the stent in the chest so I want one insurance company which cover there pre-existing condition.


  20. Lukan, Atlas America is still popular although there are mixed reviews about it. I think one of the factors that goes into this is that people buy insurance for different purposes and individual choices are many. It’s a good plan that caters to many situations and hence the popularity. However, I agree that there are mixed reviews. I think it is up to the buyer to figure out if it is suited for his personal choice and requirements. Unfortunately, you cannot have a one suit fits all kind of a solution in this space.

  21. Atlas America has 1 star on yelp reviews (and people would have given it 0 stars if that was an option). What’s going on? You list them as a bestseller and those who purchased the plan had terrible experience. Any thoughts on this?

  22. Hi Ansu,

    CoverAmerica Gold and Choice America are good options. If you are confused, call up an insurance agent like Visitors Coverage at 1-866-384-9104 and the experts there can help you find a plan that fits your requirements.

  23. Hi Mani,
    I came across your blog and it gives a very good description about travel insurance for USA. But finally I am confused after reading so many plans and benefits.
    Myself aged 58 years and my husband aged 65 will be travelling to Florida this December. We may be doing many road trips in Florida. Please suggest us a good travel insurance which is not very expensive at the same time covering emergency doctor visit and accident emergency . We do not have any pre existing medical problems. We will be staying there for 5 months.
    Please clarify.

  24. What would you suggest for parents aged 62 and 71; both in normal health, just want to buy something that takes care of emergency visits or a doctor’s visit if something comes up?

  25. Rachana, I would recommend you to take a look at policies that cover pre-existing conditions. ( At the same time, make sure that the conditions you want covered are indeed covered by the policy. A lot of people make the mistake of assuming that all conditions are covered by pre-existing conditions. They are not and only the ones that are listed is covered. Let me know.

  26. Hello Mr Mani,

    I am very happy to find your website with all the details pertaining to Visitor visa inquiries, which every child looking for their parents visiting them in US. Even my parents visiting US in November (during winters for 3 months) with mom aged 57 & dad 65. My mother is diabetic father as leg injury. As per your reference for the previous questions and based on the article, choice america is best option for aged parents with pre existing medical condition. I did read some article about about choice america but it indicates limited coverage of pre existing medical medical conditions. I dont want opt for the comprehensive plans coz only mom as high diabetic issue, I might/might not use the medical insurance. Considering winters (California) I am worried about her diabetic issues. Now I am totally confused, any suggestions from you is welcome

  27. Hi Mani,
    First of all thank you for such a great article. My parents are 64, 65 and planning to visit U.S for 4 months from India. They both have preexisting conditions. Can you please suggest comprehensive insurance for them .


  28. More I am seeing and more confusing I am getting into as my parents are diabetic in there 58 and 53 and I don’t want to take a chance ,Could you suggest which coverage is best ?

  29. This is so great. Thank you!
    I don’t suppose you could do a piece on health insurance options for parents while they are in India?

  30. Hi Deepika, Thanks and glad you found the article useful. You already pinged me on WhatsApp so I guess I’ll continue the discussion there and help you out.

  31. Hi Mani,

    First of all Kudos to you for writing such a brilliant piece that encourages discussion and provides such valuable information on various insurance plans for visitors coming to USA. Its so hard for someone who has never had to shop around for insurance to know what is good or not.
    I have been researching for good insurance plans for two of my aunts who are looking to travel to USA soon; one of them is 79 yrs old and the other is 81 yrs old.
    I read your blog and had done some of my preliminary research as well. What I am struggling with is getting a good comprehensive travellers insurance for my aunt who is 81 yrs old. They have pre-existing condition of diabetes mainly and touchwood they are in good health, however for my senior most aunt, I was looking for insurance that would pay the maximum should there be any issue and I am realizing that Safe Travels USA Comprehensive also just covers upto $25000 even if I would get a $100,000 worth of policy where pre-existing conditions were concerned. Now that wasnt making sense to me as if I am getting an insurance and paying a higher premium for getting a policy with pre-existing conditions, then is there a policy that you have come across that does better justice in terms of coverage for those over 80 with pre existing conditions. I know and have heard from my friends that Emergency Care in USA for visitors with just $25000 is barely anything.
    Any guidance and help from you will be appreciated. Thanks

  32. That is sad to hear Rajiv. For clarity, can you tell me what exactly was the medical emergency? (If you don’t mind that is). It’ll be useful for others who are interested in taking Patriot America what is covered and not. Also, what exactly did you mean by hard time for claim? Is it that they didn’t acknowledge your claim at all or did they take too much time? Finally, what happened?

  33. I got patriot america two times when my parents visited us both the times they had medical emergencies here and both times Patriot America gave a very hard time for claim so much so that eventually I just gave up. Has anyone had a good experience with them? I would not recommend them to anyone

  34. Hi MK,

    Which would you say is the best travel insurance to cover (hassle free claim) a short term (~1 month) visit from USA to India. Traveler is an Indian citizen working in USA?

  35. Hi! I just read very useful information about traveler’s insurance on your blog. My many relatives gets insurance from India before they come here. Does it work here? Please let me know.

  36. Hi Sri,

    I suggest you check out comprehensive plans with pre-existing conditions coverage. Like CoverAmerica Gold, Atlas America, Patriot America etc. It’s tricky when it comes to pre-existing conditions, I usually recommend my friends to check with the provider first hand and not trust any other source.

  37. Hi Mahesh,

    Have you checked out the ones I listed here? I don’t think it’s fair to suggest any one plan as each have their own benefits. Check out CoverAmerica Gold, Atlas America, Patriot America and ChoiceAmerica.

  38. Hi Mani,

    My mother will be traveling from India to USA, staying here for 6 months. She doesn’t have any pre-existing diseases. However, I don’t want to take any risk and want to take full coverage insurance which covers everything with a minimum deductible possible. Please suggest few companies or insurance plans which I opt for .


  39. Hi Karthik
    Fantastic work on the article! We have family visiting in the U.S with pre-existing asthma and mild hearing loss and plan to get specialist doctors advice in San Francisco bay area. Any recommendation on visitor insurance with comprehensive network and coverage within the U.S?


  40. Hi Karthik.
    My in-laws will be visiting the US in June. My father-in-law is 83 and has pre-existing conditions. Can you please recommend a plan which has good coverage for seniors over 80?

  41. Very Good stuff!!. Thank you. 🙂

    “In-depth review here” link under ICICI Lombard is pointed to HDFC.

  42. Thanks karthik , any guess how much could be premium under coverAmerica gold plan for one person? Knowing the range it varies would also help. They are planning to visit for a month



  43. Hello Sir,

    1. I’d recommend Cover America Gold.
    2. Different companies work differently but previous health record would suffice. Although you might not need it at the time of buying the insurance.
    3. Yes, you can but it will take some time for you to get it. Meanwhile, I suggest you get temporary medical insurance.

    Please feel free to call up the corresponding insurance companies toll free number. Most of them are very well answered and will clear your doubts (with little nuances even).

    Wish you safe travels. Enjoy your stay! Feel free to ask if you have any doubts.

  44. Dear Kartik
    Myself and my wife will be visiting SFO for 90days in first week of April We will be staying with our son and daughter who are Citizens
    I am 80 and my wife is 75
    We don’t have any prexiting problem No Heart Kidney Neuro Diabetes problems
    1 Which Insurance plan we should have 2 What proof we can we give If Companies say these were prexiting ??
    3 If apply and get Green card Will Obama care we can buy Premium for that and Advantage etc
    I am Internal Medicine Doctor MD from India

  45. Hi Karthik

    First of all, truly outstanding effort on your web site. It is impressive & extremely useful. My mother-in-law, who is already 75 years old is visiting from India. I am looking at Patriot America Plus Traveler’s Insurance and Liaison Continent International. Patriot America looks better in terms of coverage, but their benefit details document has pages & pages filled with legal hoops and legal protection. Cumbersome process to appeal a claim, legal matters has to be in Indiana, etc. None of this matters if they have a good track record of settling claims without subjecting claimants to undue hardship. Have you heard anything from people who had to submit claims due to medical issues? Any idea what it is like to deal with Patriot America?

    The Liaison Continent benefits document on the other hand has a lot less legal verbiage and disclaimers. Downside is that it seems to have a lot less, maybe non-existent coverage regarding pre-existing conditions for people over 70. Reading their benefits documents, it sounds like they may be easier to deal with in case of a claim.



  46. Hi Maruthi,

    I suggest you take insurance from US companies since they are much easier to work with and offer better services. Yes, ChoiceAmerica and Liaison Continent are good plans suitable for elders with pre-existing conditions and cover US and Canada. I would suggest both of these plans.

    All the best, wishing them a safe trip! Let me know if you have any questions. 🙂

  47. hi Karhik,

    I live in LA too. Thanks for your Blog. Lots of useful information. My mother-in-law is visiting us in Jan 2018, her trip is for 5 months. She is diabetic, which insurance is likely good for her. Last time when she visited we took ICICI lombard, but we don’t have much knowledge that how to visit a doctor when she had problem with her sugar levels. Is all insurance cover the LA hospitals like PPO plans? is there any idea>
    Of the note, if she is visiting canada, is there any insurance plan that covers US and Canada trips?!


  48. Hi Anand,

    It would be very unfair for me to say which one plan is best for you. You have to find the right one that suits you, but I can help. The thing is, there are several plans available to pick from, based on your requirements. Like how long the stay is, what kind of coverage you need, the age of your parents etc.

    And as you rightly mentioned, there are these third part websites that lets you choose a good plan filtering from the big list. Both Visitorscoverage and Insubuy are good websites that gives a lot of insights on which plan to choose from. Visitorscoverage is more popular but Insubuy has been around for a longer time. Some plans are common between the two as well. I’ll let you make the choice.

  49. My parents are traveling from India to USA for 3 months. Which is the best insurance for them?
    Also, how reliable is Visitorscoverage v/s Insubuy? Which site is better?

  50. MK, This is useful blog with good information! But the answer for the FAQ 2 is to b reviewed, as far as I know for a Permanent Resident/Green Card holder is NOT repeat NOT eligible to apply for any visa which will facilitate the parents to live permanently in US. Below is the extract from your link…..

    Bringing Parents to Live in the United States as Permanent Residents

    To petition for your parents (mother or father) to live in the United States as green card holders, you must be a U.S. citizen and at least 21 years old. Green card holders (permanent residents) may not petition to bring parents to live permanently in the United States.

  51. Hi Prasad,

    You just need your parents details like passport number etc. On the websites I mentioned, you can pretty much select and choose what insurance plan to buy and get it online, all in one go. You can then send the soft copies to your parents, who can carry it with them, taking a print out.

    All the best!

  52. A very useful blog,especially for first time travellers to US.
    I appreciate the fund of information compiled by the blogger Mr.ManiKarthik
    with valuable inputs by Sruthi Menon.

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